Category Archives: Diseases and Pests

Why Topping Your Trees Is Harmful

IMG_3614.jpg

This is what your tree should never look like. This is the result of the abysmal practice of topping. Other names for topping include: heading, tipping, hat-racking, and rounding over. Besides the ugliness of the topped tree and the cost of having someone come do it every year, there are other reasons to not ever do this to your tree.

The International Society of Arboriculture states: “Topping is perhaps the most harmful tree pruning practice known. Yet, despite more than 25 years of literature and
seminars explaining its harmful effects, topping remains a common practice.”


There are several things that topping your tree does to harm your tree:

Stresses the tree – Making large cuts can remove more than 50% of the leaf bearing crown of the tree. In an effort to recover, the tree produces rapid growth of new leaves. As a result you leave a weak tree with large pruning cuts which provides a perfect situation for diseases and pests to attack the tree.

Decay – Correct pruning of a tree allows the tree to compartmentalize the wound and close it. Topping leaves no way to close the wound created by leaving no branches nearby to carry resources to the point of the cut.

Weak Limbs – Due to the stressful production of new branches after topping, the newly formed branches are much weaker than a properly formed branch. This increases the risk of breakage through windy conditions.

While topping is still commonly practiced, it is not necessary. If you need clearance from utility lines you can prune in a responsible way to satisfy clearance and still provide a way for the tree to heal itself. Proper planning of tree species and placement will help you to avoid these problems in the first place.

Fruitless Mulberry trees have a lifespan of 50 years, but generally only live for up to 25 years due to topping. Topping is much easier than properly pruning a large tree and provides yearly income for those performing it, but properly pruning your tree will result in a healthy tree for much longer.

Why Your Yard Needs Mycorrhizal Fungi

mycorhizes-01

A mycorrhizal fungi is a symbiotic relationship between a plant and a fungi. This network of mycorrhiza can span miles and miles within one small cubic foot of soil.

Why Does This Matter?

This symbiotic relationship allows plants to draw nutrients and water that the root system itself would be incapable of. It also allows for the plant to resist disease and toxins. Mycorrhizal fungi can also be a great factor in drought tolerance, yield of fruit or flowers, prevention of soil compaction, ability to withstand the sowing process for seeds or transplantation, and overall microbial activity in the soil.

How Do I Encourage Mycorrhizal Relationships?

Here is a list of things that harm mycorrhizal relationships:

  • Erosion
  • Road and Home Construction
  • Leaving Soil Bare
  • Tillage
  • Fertilization
  • Fumigation
  • Chemical Treatment of Soil
  • Removal of Topsoil

These things can completely eliminate the mycorrhizal relationship in your soil.  This can leave plants in your landscape with a significant need for maintenance and upkeep.

You can add mycorrhizal fungi to your soil by using organic fertilizers that contain the correct fungi, or you can use a mycorrhizal inoculant such as those found at www.mycoapply.com .

Continued practices of not using chemicals, covering the bare ground that you can with mulch or other plants, and not tilling or leaving the soil to erode will keep the mycorrhizal fungi at home and not disturbed.

Having mycorrhizal fungi in your soil is the cure to a problem you didn’t know you had. These little guys will be personal caretakers for your plants so you can direct all your energy somewhere else.

 

Fundamentals of Bonsai – Spring

Spring is when the tree wakes up from its dormancy in Winter. The daylight length and temperatures increase and this signals to the tree that it is time to wake up. The tree then begins a cycle that it follows through Spring.

Juniper Chinensis Bonsai Shohin

  • Buds begin to swell

  • Leaves emerge and the tree goes into an energy deficit.

  • The first flush of growth hardens off and tree goes into energy positive

The perfect time to repot is while the buds are swelling. While the timing cannot always be perfectly right before the buds break, the closer to bud break (without repotting AFTER the bud break) the better.

When leaves emerge the tree spends some of the saved up energy from Fall to produce foliage with the possibility to generate more sugars and starches. When this happens the energy “bank” so to speak, goes negative. The new leaves are like an investment. Until those leaves harden off and form a cuticle, they do not photosynthesize. Until this happens this investment is a negative overall.

Pruning too much at the wrong time, defoliating, a hard freeze that kills foliage, pest issues that grow out of control, and even missing a day or two of watering can do a significant amount of damage to your tree’s health. While it doesn’t always end in a dead tree immediately, you need to consider this in the long term. You might have a hard freeze one year, prune a little off at the wrong time each season, defoliate in the Summer, and then after a few years you find your tree dead for what appears to be no specific reason.

Cotoneaster Repot Bonsai

This guy died from a late freeze after the first push of growth. I had recently repotted it and it was weak due to that. It never made it out 😦

A better way to understand this is to think of investing a significant portion of your savings into a stock hoping for a consistent return of maybe 7%. Instead of return, your stock plummets and becomes worthless. To be able to do anything with your money you’re going to need an amount of time to recoup the money you lost. If you continue as if you hadn’t lost all of your money in the investment and then spend with the intention to withdraw your invested money, you’ll be negative because you don’t actually have that money. If you have a tree that loses leaves from a freeze and then pushes out new leaves, the tree will have less energy in the bank. If you proceed by delofiating it to get a smaller push of leaves, you’ll find that it doesn’t have enough energy and will possibly die.

The vigor of the growth, length of internodes, size of leaves, and amount of leaves all depends on what you’ve previously done.

Fertilizing frequency and strength play a large part in Spring growth. If you’ve been fertilizing heavily and at the maximum frequency, you’re bound to have a large amount of energy. This will result in a lot of leaves, larger leaves, and longer internodes. The pot size also has an effect. If you fertilize lightly and infrequently, but you have your tree in a large training pot, you will not see small internodes or small leaves. Restricting the area for the roots to grow creates less vigorous growth.

If you’ve repotted a deciduous tree and pruned a large amount of roots, you’ll only see the amount of leaves that the roots can support. For a photo of this see this blog post about the difference.

Let’s go over what we’ve learned:

  • Daylight length and temperature determine when a tree breaks dormancy

  • Fertilizing strength and frequency (are not the only factors, but major factors) correlate with internode length, leaf size, and leaf quantity.

  • A deciduous tree will only push out growth that it can support with its root system.

  • Fertilizing can be throttled with frequency and strength.

  • Energy for Spring growth is stored by the tree in Fall

  • Repotting is best done before the buds break at the beginning of Spring.

  • New leaves take energy to produce and then produce energy when they harden off.

  • Common bonsai techniques (repotting, pruning, defoliation, watering, etc.) performed at the wrong time or late freezes can damage your tree’s health.

Japanese Maple Leaves