Tag Archives: Cheap

Redwood Remodel

While picking up trees for a client I saw a neglected semi-dying redwood tree on the end of a row. I asked about a discount on the tree for the condition it was in. They responded by letting me know that it was going to be thrown away and that I could take it for free.  IMG_4903

I couldn’t see much of the base as it was buried inside the container, but once I cut down the sides I was pleased with the interesting base it provided. IMG_4904IMG_4905Reverse taper, yes. Nonetheless this is something that can be a fun project from here on out for free. Here are a few more photos of it: IMG_4906IMG_4907IMG_4908IMG_4909

Pomegranate Splitting

This pomegranate is the same one from this post that I dug up right as it was beginning to leaf out. It recovered really well and pushed several flushes of growth with a few being in the Fall. I decided to repot it and take it apart to let it recover in what is planned to be the final resting place.IMG_3334If you remember from the previous post, I flat cut the bottom horizontally with my reciprocating saw. When I removed this from the pot I could not find evidence of the flat cut bottom.

I decided to proceed in cutting it apart using the same reciprocating saw.
IMG_3340IMG_3338IMG_3339I still had a significant root system on most things that I cut away. I had a few stragglers that fell off during the separation that might make it since they had a few roots connected.

I got to a point where I didn’t feel comfortable separating more of the branches, so I potted up the remaining clump back up in some normal potting soil. I might do some air layering while it recovers for a year or two.

I also got this gem with some good movement in the lower trunk from taking the other twin trunk piece apart. IMG_3342IMG_3343

I got the pot ready by getting the wire set in, bending the bottom to a 90º angle to make it more stable.IMG_3344
Then I put down an “aeration layer” as Ryan Neil refers to it. Before placing the tree in I put another layer of my regular sized bonsai soil and then tied in the tree to the pot.IMG_3345IMG_3346IMG_3347IMG_3348
After all was said and done I ended up with these to grow out this season.
This is the remaining chunk of trunks that didn’t have enough roots to cut off. I’ll let it grow out another season or two before splitting these again. img_3560
img_3537This is going to be a twin trunk style. I might have to remove the backside during the next repot.img_3543img_3542
These two were lacking in roots, so hopefully they’ll make it. They fell off while splitting the second major trunk.
img_3534img_3533This was the second major trunk that I split from the main clump. I might airlayer it this season and let the branches grow out to get a more solid taper to the higher canopy. I’ll update this post soon once everything leafs out to see how it is doing.

Privet Dig

I got lucky in being able to dig up two large pom pom style wax leaf privets up from a friend. There was also a stumped one that looks like it’ll turn out great. Here are some of the before photos:

I guess this is sort of a before picture… I also got the little one out so fast I didn’t really think to take a before photo.

One of the things that makes these so good to dig up is that they’re pretty dang indestructible. I have transplanted these in mid summer without any damage to them. The really thick cuticle on the leaves give it a tremendous ability to hold water without losing it through the leaves.

I was very pleased to realize these bushes had been watered really well (which is rare in the desert) and I pulled back the plastic while digging and saw a wonderful mat of mycorrhiza.

Another shot of the roots:

In bonsai you don’t always see this on the surface, but you should hope it is in the roots when you repot. You can encourage the growth of mycorrhiza with organic fertilizer. This is one of the reasons that organic fertilizer is preferred over chemical fertilizer.

Here is one of my tea bags that is breaking down with organic fertilizer inside of it.

Once I got the bushes out I had to transport them home….without a truck.

I got them into larger pots once I got home. The plan is to let them grow while air layering each pom pom off in the Spring.

Beautiful Bonsai Bench

Here is my latest lucky find on the side of the road.

Bonsai Display Bench

I found the metal sawhorse stands about 5 doors down from my house on the side of the road. I was able to pick them up and walk them home to start building my first bonsai bench.

Nothing fancy, I know, but the fact that I had all of this stuff on hand made this perfect. I had leftover 2x4s from a concrete job I needed to do, and picked up the bottom pieces from a commercial construction site where I was allowed in to grab scrap wood.

Now onto the dark secrets of the do-it-yourself-ers. They say “Don’t point out the mistakes and no one will know.” Now rather than rant about how no one seems to show mistakes and how that hurts our current society, I’ll just show you mine. I didn’t have to use anything other than a drill with screws.

You might not be able to tell from the photo, but the holes that were already available in the metal stands that I got were not spaced wonderfully. I had to shift a few boards to one side and some back the other way to get all of these boards in. This could’ve been fixed by buying another board, making the gaps larger and taking out a piece, or just drilling my own holes, but that was too much work for the moment.

I just needed a good bench to move my trees into the sun on the South side of my property instead of the East.

These are the ends of the boards. They were a tad bit warped which made them seem different lengths. While the ends don’t match and I had to use wooden stakes on the underside to screw each board to to keep them kinda level-ish, this will definitely get the job done for now. When I need a more professional bench I can bust out those skills and dish out some dough.

Now if we look back at the first picture you’ll see it looks decent. Can’t hate on it too much for how little effort it took.

Bonsai Bench Display

Looks better with the bonsai occupying it than it does by itself. Even leaves a perfectly shady spot for the Trident Maple that is bound to be sunburnt by June.

Cotoneaster Nursery Bonsai

I found two of these Cotoneaster Apiculatis (Tom’s Thumb) for $3 each in the discount rack at Lowe’s. Couldn’t pass these up seeing that I don’t currently have this species of Cotoneaster, and they both had interesting enough trunk possibilities that it was well worth the $3.

As you can see there is a lot going on here. Branches everywhere and roots all over.

Another angle.

As I started through this I basically ended up cutting the rootball in half vertically. I separated a ground-layered section and then combed out the remaining roots for the main trunk.

This is the portion of the tree that had been naturally ground-layered. I was able to cut a majority of the root system off in hopes that this can become established in its new pot.

There was another large trunk that I to cut off due to it being too close to the main trunk. See bottom left of the trunk.

This is the front with finger for scale.

Full view of the front in my funky bowl gone bonsai pot.

A closer look at the options I have near the trunk.

For now this is what I’m thinking about. I’m going to be taking several cuttings from the other side once late Spring comes around. I’ll let it grow out and re-establish its root system without doing too much work on the top. Spring growth brings foliage, and foliage stimulates root growth. The roots will open as many buds as it can handle, and the rest will slowly take care of itself. Yay for plant physiology!

5 Reasons To Use Organic Mulch

Why do we mulch our trees and planters? Not only does it decrease water needs, but it helps manage weeds, which is enough for me to do it to everything on my property. There are many options for mulch that are effective and relatively cheap. The benefits of organic mulch heavily outweigh its inorganic counterpart due to the following reasons:

Organic Mulch

1. Insulation

Mulch insulates the soil, which in turn helps the roots with varying temperatures. Plants that are on the edge of your zone might be saved from a good mulching.

2. Nourishment

With organic materials being part of your mulch you gain the benefit of having your mulch provide nutrients. As the mulch decomposes it will release nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium into the soil. If you use compost as a mulch you can also add several micro-nutrients and trace minerals that commercial fertilizers are often lacking.

3. Free or Low Cost

Plenty of organic mulches can be obtained completely free of cost. Grass clippings, straw, leaves, compost, saw dust, rice hulls, bark chips, hay, straw, shredded paper or newspaper, and even living mulch such as perennial can all be used as organic mulch. If you can’t obtain some of these materials for free they are not as expensive as their inorganic buddies.

Shredded Bark Mulch

4. Reuse Discarded Materials

Think of how many things that I just listed that you’ve previously thrown away at some point in your life. These materials are frequently thrown away and loaded to a dump. Just the leaves and grass that your yard might produce can be turned into organic mulch instead of purchasing up to $30 worth of bagged rubber mulch from a big box store.

5. Condition Soil for Water Retention and Root Development

As the soil is conditioned through organic mulching it increases in capacity to hold water. This has a profound effect on root growth as it encourages roots to grow deeper and extend farther. Additionally this can help prevent erosion by doing so.

While I wouldn’t discourage using inorganic mulch for your yard over no mulch, there are plenty of reasons that show organic mulch is the best for your plants and trees.

Bonsai Soil Information

I come to you with the goal of making a one-stop shop for bonsai soil information. While I myself am not a soil expert, I do consider myself resourceful in finding the information I need.

Within this post will be sections about particle size, soil mixture recommendations, different substrates and their ability in different categories, as many comments on substrates I can find from reliable sources, and a few reliable places to find the substrates. I welcome additions to the lists from any and all locations.

Particle Size

I know there is no standard particle size that everyone agrees on, but here is what I’ve carved out due to a bit of research. Going a tad bit bigger or smaller doesn’t kill the tree, but it might change watering requirements and change the root structure. Generally aim for these relative sizes.

Large – Anything 30″ and up 1/8″ – 5/16″ (3 mm – 8 mm)
Medium – 10″ to 30″, two hand trees 1/16″ – 1/4″ (3 mm – 6 mm)
Small – Can go up to about 10″ to 12″ 1/16″ – 1/8″ (1.5 mm – 3 mm)

If you don’t like my sizing guides here are a few other posts and details you can check out:




Mixture Recommendations

I know there is no standard soil or mixture that people agree on, but there are a few agreed upon principles when mixing soil. The main things you need to consider are having adequate aeration, water retention, and ability to hold nutrients or CEC.

I feel the most common and most agreed upon mixture (also known as “Boon’s Mix”) is 1/3 pumice, 1/3 akadama, 1/3 lava. Here are the different mixture suggestions I came upon with my research:

  • 1/3 akadama, 1/3 pumice, 1/3 lava
  • 1/2 akadama, 1/4 pumice, 1/4 lava – Deciduous trees
  • 1/2 akadama, 1/4 bark, 1/4 lava
  • 2/3 akadama, 1/3 lava, a bit of organic something – Conifers
  • 1/2 pumice, 1/2 lava with slow release fertilizer
  • 100% Akadama – refined deciduous trees
  • 100% pumice for collected trees (I have found almost no disagreement upon using pure pumice for collected trees)

*akadama, pumice, lava, and bark can be replaced with Turface, DE, DG, or other substrates that provide similar water retention, aeration, and CEC.

These are things that we need to take into consideration regardless of the mix we choose:

  • Take into consideration the species of the tree when choosing a soil mixture. Some like to dry out completely, some need to be acidic, some need to remain moist but not wet. This can make different mixes and some substrates better or sub-optimal.

  • Age, size, and trees in refinement can require different repotting intervals which can alter an optimal mixture

  • Deep pots have a tendency to dry out quicker

  • It is common to put a layer of larger substrate on the bottom to retain good drainage

  • Shallow pots have a higher water table than deep pots.

  • Location and weather need to be considered when choosing a mix and substrates.

  • High heat and wind can dry out a tree quick through increased evaporation

  • Frequent rain can cause problems if you don’t have a soil equipped for extra water.

  • Extreme cold can cause several freeze-thaw cycles and can break down certain substrates quickly


There are two videos from the Appalachian Bonsai that test and rank substrates in water retention and freeze-thaw cycles. I’ll refer to those rankings below. The details of the test and the list is in the details in the video details. I need to add, CEC stands for Cation Exchange Capacity and measure how well a substrate can hold nutrients (fertilizer). The higher the number the better it is as holding nutrients.

One of the best discussions I’ve ever heard about soil is a podcast done by Ryan Neil with soil scientist Ian Hunter. 2 pure hours of soil nerding. I strongly suggest listening to it.


What it does like no other: Roots can grow through the akadama. This means that a pot with 100% akadama leaves the roots with 100% of the pot to grow in. Other mediums restrict the percentage of the pot that the roots can use to grow. This is best for refinement as it allows for the roots to become fine which in turn makes the branching fine.

Complaints: Lack of availability or the cost. People also frequently order akadama without knowing the “hardness” of it and that can lead to it breaking down too early and can block drainage as it turns to mush. Many claim that lack of knowledge on how to properly water and fertilize leads to a dislike of the substrate.

Water Retention: Akadama holds water well. Ranked at #2 in water retention

Aeration: Great until it starts to break down which can vary depending on brand and hardness.

CEC: 21/100g #5

Durability: Can not be reused and breakdown over time. It does not hold up well against freeze-thaw cycles and that can cause problems. Even though it breaks down you can still have roots that grow through it, you just need to be careful in watering and understanding your tree.

Freeze-Thaw Cycles: Ranked 10th out of 10.

Availability: Difficult to come by in US. It is expensive to get it due to the limited availability. There are definitely places to get it, just how much you pay for it depends on who is getting and selling it.

Professional Bonsai Artists Opinions on Akadama: If you’re arguing for or against akadama please do read this post from Bonsai Empire on differing opinions on akadama from professional bonsai artists so you can understand what you’re talking about. These are my favorite snippets for the lazy:

  • “I do not use Akadama. Have tried it and it doesn’t do its job here. (Northern Europe)” – Morten Albek

  • “In Indonesia, we only use volcanic lava soil from Indonesia for all of our Bonsai. for all stages.” – Robert Steven

  • “Products like Turface are soil amendments that the manufacturers recommend using at no more than 10 – 15 percent of the total volume. I follow that recommendation. I have noticed that turface gives good results for a year, possibly two years when used for newly collected plants, but during year three there is a deterioration in vigor at the time when one would normally expect an improvement.” – Collin Lewis

  • “Yes, I use akadama for all my trees. I use less akadama on the tree in training (25% or less).” – Boonyarat Manakitivipart (Bonsai Boon)

  • One additional comment from Adam’s soil blog post comment section: “On Peter Tea’s last visit back from Japan we were talking about soil mixes and he said, “do you know why they use akadama in Japan? It’s because that’s what the sell at the hardware store.” That’s not to say it doesn’t work great for our purposes. His point was, it’s worth looking into other things to use, that work just as good, that are more affordable, and don’t need to be imported from the other side of the globe.” – Anonymous Adam

Worldwide Map of Bonsai Nurseries

This is going to be your best bet in buying Akadama. Clubs, bonsai nurseries, or wholesale bonsai suppliers are going to be the main sources of akadama.

Southern California Suppliers:

SoCal Bonsai Supplyhttps://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=1026762080767062&story_fbid=1039194236190513

West American Import Export – David Nguy4207 Walnut Ave, Chino 91710 (714) 914-7001

San Diego Bonsai Supplies (Tim Hua) lava (scoria), pumice, and akadama supplies.

Grove Way Nursery – 239 Grove Way, Hayward, CA 94541 Phone: (510) 537-1157

Lava (Scoria)

What it does like no other: It does not break down and can be used over and over again. This makes it a fantastic component for trees that are not repotted often as it will continuously provide the drainage and aeration that other components might lose over time.

Complaints: Only complaints that I have ever heard about lava is availability. Not being able to buy it in smaller particle size makes this a frustrating search for “cheaper” lava. Bonsai retailers typically have this available, but you do have to pay for it.

Water Retention: Ranks 8th out of 10, which is not particularly fantastic.

Aeration: Fantastic aeration that doesn’t change with time. Might be the best out there other than just rocks that hold no water at all. (But then again these are lightweight!!!)

CEC: 10/100g Be nice, it’s just a rock. #8

Durability: I mean, it’s a rock, it’s durable…

Freeze-Thaw Cycles: Ranked 5th out of 10.

Availability: Available most places, but not in 1/8″ particle sizes. To get that size you typically have to get truckloads delivered or go through a bonsai supply store. I’ve tried to help by listing places below. Some might only have 1/4″, but that can fly depending on how particular you are.

Tuscon, AZhttp://www.acmesand.com/soil-amendments/black-lava-sand/

Irwindale, CAhttp://sunburstrock.com/redcinder.html

SoCal Bonsai SupplyFantastic prices, especially if you can pick up yourself.

Fillmore, UThttp://gngrock.com/rock-products/scoria-cinder-lava-rock

Springfield/Eugene, ORhttp://laneforest.com/bulk-rock-and-gravel/red-cinder-rock/

Clearlake Oaks, CAhttp://www.cllava.com/landscape_rock.html

Minot, ND(possible correct sizing) http://www.gravelproductsinc.com/photoMinot.html


What it does like no other: Great for yamadori collecting. It seems to be one of the best things to put collected trees in, just 100% pure pumice. Others will suggest adding in other substrates with it.

Complaints: I honestly didn’t come across a single complaint of pumice. I’m not sure why someone wouldn’t like it other than availability. Its cheap and mostly available around the US.

Water Retention: It ranks number 3 out of 10, but I’m not sure about the differences between the Kanuma Pumice used in the ranking trial and Horticultural Pumice.

Aeration: Pumice provides great aeration while retaining moisture, which is one of its many fantastic qualities!

CEC: 15/100g #7

Durability: Over a long period of time I’ve heard it breaks down, but I’ve been told that it doesn’t degrade even though it is a tad bit soft and can be crushed with your hands. Either way it’s good in terms of durability.

Availability: Pumice seems to be pretty available from my understanding. It can be bought as dry stall if not under the name of pumice (working with them to get a supplier list). I found mine at a hydroponics store that sold a large bag (like around 50 lbs.) for like $13.

The best distributor around the US and Canada I found was Featherock and Sunlight Supply ($15.95 for a 47 lb. bag – 1/2 cf! Waaay cheaper if you can find it than bonsai retailers). I think Sunlight Supply had a retailer in almost every state I checked, and you can find Sunlight Supply’s retailer finder at https://www.sunlightsupply.com/page/findretailer, while Featherock has distributors in these states:

Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Nevada, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, Canada

Download Distributors Master List 2017


Eugene/Springfield, ORhttp://laneforest.com/bulk-rock-and-gravel/horticultural-pumice/

Olancha, CA (Shipping as well)http://www.generalpumiceproducts.com/horticulture/

Canby, Oregonhttp://www.phillipssoil.com/retail/

Salinas, CAhttp://mas-dist.com/pumice-2/

Bellingham, WAhttps://natures-footprint.myshopify.com/products/pumice-3-5-gallon?variant=18101887171 ($22 shipping to Southern California for reference)


UK Aylesford http://www.techfil.co.uk/full-product-range/pumice/pumice-aggregates/

UK Staffordshirehttp://appliedminerals.co.uk/products/am-pumice/

Sparks, NV/Rhode Island/Puerto Ricohttp://reade-px.rtrk.com/products/pumice-powder-amorphous-aluminum-silicate

Baton Rouge, Louisianahttp://www.alligatorclay.com/chemicals.php

Still researching these following providers:



Ohio & Onlinehttps://www.bulkapothecary.com/raw-ingredients/other-ingredients-and-chemicals/pumice/



What it does like no other: It makes bonsai enthusiasts blood boil.

Complaints: I don’t want to rehash this, but here we go. People love, like, hate, and hold disdain for Turface. I have no complaints using it, but it isn’t my main component, so there it is. It apparently doesn’t readily give water to roots which is its major turn off.

Water Retention: It absorbs water and slowly releases it. It does a great job holding water

Aeration: From using it I would say it doesn’t provide great aeration, but it doesn’t inhibit drainage too much.

CEC: 33/100g #3 about the same as akadama

Durability: Not as durable as other things that can be reused, but holds up better than akadama does over time.

Availability: Not too difficult to get a hold of, but can be depending upon your location.

Turface MVPhttp://www.turface.com/find-a-distributor

Here is a general layout of the listed distributors:







Discussions on Turface:

Michael Hagedornhttps://crataegus.com/2013/11/24/life-without-turface/

Jack Wiklehttp://hoosierbonsai.blogspot.com/2013/12/turface-or-not-turface-active-question.html

The Bonsai Dilettantehttp://www.bonsaidilettante.com/2014/03/im-cutting-out-the-turface.html

Diatomaceous earth (NAPA part #8822)


Comments: TL:DR it’s another version of Turface. Cheap akadama replacement and I haven’t heard too many negative things about it as I have Turface. Then again, I think the root of the word Turface is hate. Also cat litter has been used and classified under DE. Kitty litter seems to be the go to for Europe, while Napa Floor Dry is the go to here in the US.

Water Retention: Ranks #1 above Akadama. DE can hold up to 6 times its weight in water, needless to say it gets the job done.

Aeration: Good aeration, but as noted by the freeze-thaw cycles it will slowly breakdown over time which inhibits the aeration as time goes on.

CEC: 27/100g, #4 better than Akadama

Durability: Not known for being sturdy. It does break down over time and is not reusable.

Availability: Widely available. Can be purchased at NAPA Auto Parts and most Walmarts if not plenty of other places.

Great resources for kitty litter being used:http://www.bonsai4me.com/Basics/Basicscatlitter.htm

Decomposed Granite (Chicken Grit)

Decomposed Granite

Comments: I know this can get really heavy if you’re using a significant portion of DG in large pots, be careful of this.

Water Retention: Ranks #9 out of 10, so not good.

Aeration: Great aeration due to absorbing nearly no water. Also great durability since it doesn’t breakdown with freeze-thaw cycles. Needs to be sifted as it can compact easily with smaller particles.

CEC: 10/100g. #8

Durability: Really durable, even when frozen and thawed. I’m assuming it’s reusable, but I’m not 100% sure and didn’t find anything about re-usability.

Availability: Searching through tile suppliers, gravel yards, and animal feed stores should net you a supply of DG.

Sand (Silica)

Comments: Helps add drainage that won’t degrade. This can be super helpful depending on what you mix is made of.

Water Retention: Ranks #7 out of 10, so not terrible in my opinion.

Aeration: This is the main reason to use it, so I’d say it does great and will mainly function for aeration.

CEC: 0/100g. #10

Durability: Really durable, even when frozen and thawed. It is a great cutting propagation medium and can be used afterwards in a growing out bed or propagation medium. Reusable.

Availability: Typically available at your local department store. Lowe’s carries the sand I’ve purchased, but Home Depot did not. Known as building sand as well.

Expanded Shale

Comments: Reminds me of lava in terms of what it provides. Great long term drainage with not much holding power for anything else.

Water Retention: Ranks #9 out of 10, so not good.

Aeration: Great aeration due to not absorbing much water or nutrients and not breaking down.

CEC: 15/100g. #6

Durability: Really durable, even when frozen and thawed. Reusable

Availability: Not highly available, might require some searching depending on your location.



Complaints: Availability, similar to akadama

Water Retention: Great, wasn’t measured in the tests below, but similar to akadama

Aeration: Great until it breaks down. This is similar to akadama in almost all things except pH. It it used specifically for Azaleas and other acid-loving plants.

CEC: 62/100g. #2 Fantastic CEC that is nearly double that of akadama.

Durability: Not reusable and breaks down over time. Not durable.

Availability: Not widly available. Usually through bonsai supplier or special ordering (SoCal Bonsai Supply also sells this on occasion).



Perlite Substrate

Comments: I’m not fond of the fact that it floats and tends to always find a way to the top.

Water Retention: Ranks #6, better than lava, but not enough to replace an akadama-like substance.

Aeration: Good until it compacts. Wouldn’t work well with heavier soil components

CEC: 1.5/100g, so none. #9 or last.

Durability: Doesn’t break down, but definitely compacts.

Availability: Available at almost every gardening store and should be purchasable at Lowe’s, Home Depot, or your local gardening store.

Pine Bark Fines

Comments: OMG it’s organic! Ruuuuuuun. No really this stuff is great. I love its CEC since inorganic components don’t do that really well.

Water Retention: Does great in water retention.

Aeration: I love that the particle sizes and shapes are different than the typical “rocks” we put in bonsai soil, helps change up the structure up. Other than that not super fantastic in terms of drainage.

CEC: 150/100g. #1 This is why you put this stuff in your mix if you do. More than 5 times better than the next best which is DE.

Durability: Degrades and is not durable or reusable.

Availability: Available most places or easily acquirable. Getting it in smaller sizes instead of bark nuggets is the difficulty most times.

If you have suggestions, corrections, quotes, preferred brands, suppliers, or anything to add to this list of resources please feel free to contact me with a comment below, through the website, or email me at natesnursery.net@gmail.com. You can also send a text to (760) 503-4647 with the information and I’ll get it put up as soon as I can. I’ll add your name and addition or correction below if you so desire.